What are the common characteristics of successful and effective school supervisor?
-Supervisor - KIT (knowledgeable, interpersonal skills, technical competence)
-Ralph W.Tyler (1949) - OCMEEA (objective, content, methodology, educational philosophy,evaluation,assessment)
Give reasons for the need of supervision in school?
P- Supervision is Profesional Activity
E- Supervision and teacher effectiveness are directly linked.
N- Human are natural learners
A- Supervision motivate and allow teacher to attain work satisfaction
Compare 5 models of supervision
1. Tradisional @ bureaucratic model
2. Human resource supervision@ human relation model
3. Clinical supervision
4. Developmental supervisory
5. Collegial supervision
Tradisional @ bureaucratic model
- teacher are regard as subordinates who need to be directed.
- this model is authoritative, directive, coercive and punitive
- supervision consists of monitoring and ordering
- teacher are told not to asked
- teacher are punished for failure and not rewarded for success
- supervisors feel responsible to formulate standart to some extent is works.
Human resource supervision@ human relation model
- attempts to humanize the bureaucratic model
- 3 basic characteristics
a) supervision should center on teacher involved
b) the process involve personal + grounded within educational tradition
c) supervision may only be implemented within the context of organizational dynamics
- focuses on classroom behavior for improvement of instruction
- 3 important steps
a) Pre-OC - Pre Observation Conference
b) O - Observation
c) Pra-OC -Pra Observation Conference
-supervisory should be based on the teacher engages in teaching activities.
- supervision as supportive process, teachers' individual characteristics and basic beliefs.
- Carl Glickman (1990) , the level of abstration and commitment define the teacher characteristics.
- these characteristic produce four basic types of teacher
a) The Professional
High Abstration, High Commitment
b) The Unfocused Worker
Low Abstration, High Commitment
c) The Analytical Observer
High Abstration, Low Commitment
d) The Droupout
Low Abstration, Low Commitment
- Glickman's orientation of supervisors:
a) non-directive - professional and unfocused teacher
b) Collaborative - analytical observer teacher
c) direct - droupout teacher
- non traditional supervisions
- to encourage, guide and facilitate teacher
- focus : the improvement of instruction
- supervisor not necessarily an evaluator
- example : experienced teacher assists a novice
pear coaching tenures teacher.
Describe supervisory task by Ben Harris, 1985?
- 3 types of supervisory task
a) Preliminary task
b) Development task
c) Operational task
- DC PS PF
- developing curriculum
- provide staff
- provide facilities
- PE EI
- Professional development
- Evaluate instruction
- Oi Pm Ons Rsps Dpr
- Organize for instruction
- Provide materials
- Orientation of new staffs
- Relate and provide special pupil service
- Develop public relations